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GIA’s Global Leadership Program - Building Bridges between Different Sectors of Global Gem and Jewelry Supply Chain
kathryn_kimmel_x.jpgThe Gemological Institute of America (GIA), well-known for its wide range of education programs, launched yet another training course last year in team with the Harvard Business School (HBS), this time bringing together senior gem and jewelry executives from around the world and offering them an opportunity to discuss challenges facing the industry within the frames of the Global Leadership Program. After a successful start-up, the second edition of this Program was run on June 15-18, 2015 and turned to be in the opinion of one of its participants “a splendid platform for peers from all walks of the industry to discuss and exchange ideas”. Rough&Polished asked Kathryn Kimmel, GIA’s Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer to tell more about this educational initiative and here is what she said.

Pangolin optimistic of finding diamonds in Botswana
leon_daniels_x.jpgPangolin Diamonds, which prides itself as one of the few exploration companies doing “real” diamond exploration, is optimistic of finding diamonds in Botswana, the world’s leading diamond producing country by value. Company president and chief executive Dr. Leon Daniels told Rough & Polished’s Mathew Nyaungwa that current results in the Malatswae Project suggest they are close to discovery. He said the unusual number of diamonds Pangolin had found in a small area of the Malatswae Project strongly indicate that any discovery in the area would be diamondiferous. Daniels said his company should be a producer, not an explorer within the next five years. He also spoke about the company’s other projects in Botswana.

Our business is built on trust and confidence and so it is critical that we remain optimistic - Ernest Blom
ernie_blom_x.jpgA third generation diamantaire, Ernie Blom is now President of the World Federation of Diamond Bourses (WFDB) for the third term. He has served on a range of industry bodies as an executive and chairman for many years, including Chairman, Diamond Dealers Club of South Africa; Chairman, Rough Diamond Dealers Association; Chairman, Master Diamond Cutters Association; Chairman, Jewellery Council of South Africa, South African Diamond Board; and is a Special Diplomatic Advisor to the Belgium government on trade with Africa. In an interview with Rough&Polished, Ernie Blom speaks about the various concerns of the global diamond industry at present.

Shmuel Schnitzer: Creative Thinking Is The Way Forward
shmuel_schnitzer_x.jpgWith the situation in the global diamond market tougher than it has been for many years, a new way of thinking is called for, Israel Diamond Exchange (IDE) President Shmuel Schnitzer told Rough & Polished. Schnitzer answered questions on recent initiatives taken by the IDE, and the state of the diamond markets worldwide.



News

28.08.2015
ALROSA reports H1 2015 IFRS results
H1 2015 ALROSA revenue increased by 26% y-o-y and amounted to RUB 131.9 bn. EBITDA grew by 49% y-o-y and reached RUB 70.5 bn with EBITDA margin going up to 53%. These results were disclosed in the company's statement released on Friday and received by Rough&Polished.

28.08.2015
ALROSA releases Social and Environmental Report for 2014
ALROSA published its Social and Environmental Report for 2014.

28.08.2015
Namdeb launches new vessel
Namdeb, a joint venture between the Namibian government and De Beers, has launched a new vessel named Zaamwani Surveyor, which will survey the bathymetry of the near shore portions of the company’s mining licence areas.



India as a world diamond centre

03.09.2012

From ancient times to the present day

Since ancient times, India has been a historical center of diamonds. Several thousand years ago people there were able to mine diamonds and used them to make jewelry. Merchants from many countries exchanged goods and gold for Indian diamonds. Moreover, in the Indian treatise Arthashastra (literally “the doctrine of wealth”) by Kautilya there is a mention of duties imposed on diamonds, which indicates the importance of diamond trade among other goods.

The first diamonds were found and then mined in India more than 1,000 years BC. It is known that Alexander of Macedon brought the first diamond to Europe from India in 327 BC. Almost two thousand years, until the end of the 19th century (1896), India was the only country in the world where diamonds were mined. The diamond mines of Golconda near the modern city of Hyderabad are renowned around the world for the most famous diamonds in history found there.

Diamond cutting also originated in India, where diamonds were skillfully cut and polished by Indian craftsmen since the beginning of the 16th century. Not surprisingly, the evaluation of diamonds and gems also appeared there. Diamonds in India were evaluated similar to the division of society into castes (varnas): Brahmans - transparent colorless diamonds, Kshatriyas – diamonds with a reddish hue, Vaisyas - diamonds with a greenish or yellow hue, and finally Shudras - gray or dark color diamonds. Varna in Sanskrit means quality, color, category.

Production of and trade in diamonds in India

In India, the Madhya Pradesh state has a primary diamond deposit (Majhgawan) and a few placers, the total reserves of which are estimated at 2.6 million carats. Their diamond output is insignificant (Table 1, Fig. 1).

India is the largest consumer of rough diamonds in the world. At the same time, as it was mentioned above, its diamond output is negligible (Table 2).

Table 1

Diamond mining in India, 2006-2011

















According to the Kimberley Process

Table 2

Import and export of diamonds in India, 2006-2011














According to the Kimberley Process

India - the world's largest diamond cutting center

India is the undisputed global leader in the polished diamond market: it holds a 60% market share by value, 80% by volume and 92% by the number of stones. India’s diamond and jewelry business involves about 1.3 million workers engaged in 25,000 enterprises.

Today the country produces 8 out of every 10 polished diamonds in the world. If earlier it was mainly the so-called "Indian goods" - small diamonds, now there is a trend to increase the range of processed diamonds including stones of two carats and above.

India is engaged in intensive construction of new factories with modern equipment, where laser diamond processing and computer diamond marking are being brought to perfection.

India’s diamond cutting industry is concentrated in the west of the country in Mumbai, Surat and Ahmedabad. The entire diamond business is concentrated and controlled by 2,500 families who practice Jainism and are closely linked by ties of kinship. This community, adding up to 0.5% of India’s population, plays an important role in trade and finance.



































 










Fig. 1. Diamond industry of India

India is confidently in the first place as the world's largest producer of polished diamonds. The number of employees in Indian diamond cutting companies is about one million people.

The diamond cutting industry in India is a highly organized sector with a hierarchical structure. At the top of the "management pyramid" is the Indian Gems and Jewelry Export Promotion Council. The aim of the Council is to coordinate the interests of the state and industry, as well as to assist in promoting Indian jewelry industry goods on the world market.

The second tier is occupied by major private import-export companies. All of them are engaged in cutting, except for two. MMTS – the state-owned export-import company trading in minerals. The second one, Hindustan Diamond Company Private Limited (HDCPL), is a joint venture of the Ministry of Trade and Industry of India and De Beers Group, which hold equal stakes in the company. HDCPL was established in 1978 and is one of the leading agents in rough diamond trade in India. HDCPL is a DTC sightholder and supplier of diamonds to the Indian diamond industry, mainly to small and medium factories.

The third tier consists of small and medium-size enterprises in the formal sector of the industry. They are working under contracts with major importers of rough. Their main distinction is that they are highly specialized depending on the nature of processed products.

The fourth tier may include small-scale enterprises of the informal sector operating within a system of subcontracts and specialized in processing very small diamonds. Actually, they source their rough in the secondary market.

Jewelry production in India

India's jewelry industry is export oriented. Jewelry companies in India are highly organized operations using all the modern technologies of management with due account for local conditions. Even small factories (25-50 persons) in this sector have modern equipment.

India’s jewelry industry is mainly producing jewelry pieces of Western design. Still they leave a place for exclusive and expensive products made in the traditional Indian manner.

Jewelry manufacturers use the most up-to-date equipment, casting techniques and elements of computer design.

The Government of India and Gems and Jewelry Export Promotion Council contribute their efforts to win leading positions not only in diamond cutting, but also in manufacturing and exporting jewelry. It was the government’s policy which facilitated high production and export performance being aimed at liberalizing the jewelry sector and domestic market of precious metals and stones.

India’s prospects to preserve leadership in the global diamond business

The high competitiveness of the diamond industry in India is defined by the following factors:

1. Historical traditions and a large number of people employed in the diamond business with a relatively low wages, as well as introduction of modern techniques and equipment making it possible to develop the diamond and jewelry industries in a dynamic way.

2. State protectionism practiced to maintain import and export of goods and virtual absence of state control over the circulation of diamonds and jewelry.

3. High rates of GDP growth in India, as well as high rates of growth in certain branches of India’s industry contributing to higher living standards and thus to an increase in domestic demand and consumption of jewelry and diamonds, which is a huge potential for further development in a country with a population of over one billion people.

Yuri Danilov, Ph. D., Director of the Department of Regional Subsoil Management Economics, Institute for Regional Economics of the North at Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University

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